Are there criminal sanctions for infringement of any intellectual property rights, and if so, what are they and how are they invoked?

Intellectual Property

Bulgaria Small Flag Bulgaria

Yes, Section VII of the Bulgarian Penal code provides for criminal liability for infringement of IP rights, e.g. usage without legal ground. The criminal liability shall be invoked where there is a legal reason and sufficient data for a committed offence by an investigating body.

Malaysia Small Flag Malaysia

Trade marks:
Using a false trade description relating to trademark (Trade Descriptions Act 2011): The general penalty for body corporate is a maximum RM25,000 and for a second or subsequent offence, a maximum RM50,000. The general penalty for non-corporate body is a maximum RM10,000 or to imprisonment for a maximum 1 year, or both. For a second or subsequent offence, a maximum fine of RM20,000 or to imprisonment for a maximum 3 years or both.

Public Prosecutor initiates prosecution at its discretion.

Copyright:
Copyright infringement - fine of between RM10,000 and RM50,000 or to imprisonment for a maximum 5 years or both, where no other special penalty is provided.

Public Prosecutor initiates prosecution at its discretion.

Belgium Small Flag Belgium

Infringements are sanctioned by the Criminal Code and Book XV of the Code of Economic Law which provides for six levels of sanctions. Most are of a financial nature going from €EUR26 to €5,000 at the first level to €500 to €100,000 and/or an imprisonment of 1 to 5 years for knowingly infringing IP rights. These are historical amounts and must currently be multiplied by 6 in order to reflect the current level of sanctions.

Criminal proceedings are initiated at the initiative of an interested party claiming compensation for damages suffered, or by the public prosecutor.

Criminal proceedings suspend civil proceedings – apart from requests for injunctive relief – and are conducted under the control of the public prosecutor. In practice, that is why they are initiated only by the claimant who has no information on the identity of the infringer or in the context of a larger criminal investigation.

The criminal courts may also impose a variety of other sanctions which can also be ordered by civil courts, such as seizure or forfeiture and destruction of the infringing goods (whoever is the owner), total or partial closure of the establishment operated by the convicted person and temporary or permanent disqualification of the infringer from commercial activities.

Singapore Small Flag Singapore

Copyright – Section 136 of the Copyright Act covers criminal offences, including the sale, hire, importation, distribution, or possession of infringing copies of infringing works. Offenders can be liable for a fine up to S$100,000 and/or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years upon conviction.

Trade marks – Part VI of the Trade Marks Act covers criminal offences, including the counterfeiting of a trade mark, false application of a registered trade mark to goods or services, the making or possessing of article for committing offence, and the importing or selling of goods with falsely applied trade mark. Offenders can be liable for a fine up to S$100,000 and/or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years upon conviction.

France Small Flag France

Infringers may face criminal sanctions up to 3 years of imprisonment and a fine of 300, 000 euros for copyright (IPC art. L.335-2-1), neighbouring rights (IPC art. L.335-4), designs (IPC art. L521-10), plant varieties certifications (IPC art. L.623-32-2) and patents (IPC art. L.615-1).

For trademarks, the sanction is 4 years of imprisonment and a fine of 400,000 euros (IPC art. L.716-9).

For manufacturing secrets, the sanction is 2 years of imprisonment and a fine of 30,000 euros (IPC art. L.621-1 and Labour Code art. L.1227-1).

For legal entities, the fine is equal to five times the amount set for individuals (Criminal Code art. 131-38) and the sanctions mentioned in article 131-39 of Criminal Code such as dissolution or closure shall apply.

Portugal Small Flag Portugal

R: Some infringements are crimes such as the violation of the exclusive granted by patents, utility models, topographies of semiconductor or designs. Counterfeiting, imitation or illegal use of trademarks may also be a crime. The violation or illegal use of designations of origin and geographical indications may also represent a crime. The fraudulent registration or abusive fraudulent maintenance of some rights can be a crime as well. Several copyright infringements are also considered crimes. Depending on the importance of the infringement, the violation of IP rights may only be considered a misdemeanours act, as well as the violation or illegal use of logos or commercial names. The practice of unfair competition acts is also considered misdemeanour.

This sanctions shall be invoked by the interested parties in Court or Arbitration proceedings. Parties may also submit complaints to custom authority or to other official inspection entities.

India Small Flag India

Yes, there are criminal sanction for infringement in India in connection with trade mark, copyright and patent in India for acts amounting to falsification/infringement. Further, an infringer may also be liable for search and seizure of the infringing goods.

Further, the offences under the Trade Marks Act, 1999 and the Copyright Act, 1957, by virtue of the First Schedule table II of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, are cognizable offense and the registration of the trade mark is not compulsory for initiation of criminal action.

An infringer hence may be liable for criminal actions under Sections 482(Punishment for using false property mark), Section 483 (Punishment for counterfeiting a property mark used by another), Section 486 (Punishment for selling goods marked with a counterfeit property mark) and Section 488 (Punishment for making use of any such false mark) of the Indian Penal Code, amongst others.

The Criminal remedies are invoked by filing a complaint before the Court of competent jurisdiction.

Greece Small Flag Greece

  • Specific criminal provisions are available to enforce copyright and trade marks.
  • Copyright: Under Art. 66 of Law 2121/1993, any person who, in contravention of the provisions of this law or of the provisions of lawfully ratified multilateral international conventions on the protection of copyright, unlawfully makes a fixation of a work or of copies, reproduces them directly or indirectly, temporarily or permanently in any form, in whole or in part, translates, adapts, alters or transforms them, or distributes them to the public by sale or other means, or possesses with the intent of distributing them, rents, performs in public, broadcasts by radio or television or any other means, communicates to the public works or copies by any means, imports copies of a work illegally produced abroad without the consent of the author and, in general, exploits works, reproductions or copies being the object of copyright or acts against the moral right of the author to decide freely on the publication and the presentation of his work to the public without additions or deletions, shall be liable to imprisonment of no less than a year and to a fine of 2.900-15.000 EUR.

    If the financial gain sought or the damage caused by the infringing act is "particularly great", the sanction is a minimum 2 years imprisonment and heavy fines. If the perpetrator has acted "by profession" or "at a commercial scale" or if the circumstances in connection with the perpetration of the act indicate that the perpetrator party poses a serious threat to the protection of copyright or related rights, the sanction shall be imprisonment of up to ten (10) years, as well as revocation of the trading license of the undertaking which has served as the vehicle for the act. The act shall be deemed to have been perpetrated "by profession", if the perpetrator has prior irrevocable criminal copyright conviction (imprisonment).

    The above sanctions also apply against infringers of performers rights, phonogram, audiovisual works producers' rights, radio and television organizations' rights. They will also apply to any person who (i) uses or distributes, or possesses with the intent to distribute, any system or means whose sole purpose is to facilitate the unpermitted removal or neutralization of a technical system used to protect a computer program; (ii) manufactures or imports or distributes, or possesses with intent to distribute, equipment and other materials utilizable for the reproduction of a work which do not conform to the specifications determined pursuant to Article 59 of this Law; (iii) manufactures or imports or distributes, or possesses with intent to distribute, objects which can thwart the efficacy of the above-mentioned specifications, or engages in an act which can have that result; (iv) reproduces or uses a work without utilizing the equipment or without applying the systems specified pursuant to Article 60 of this Law; and (v) distributes, or possesses with intent to distribute, a phonogram or film without the special mark or control label specified pursuant to Article 61 of this Law.

    Additionally, any person who proceeds to unauthorized temporary or permanent reproduction of the database, translation, adaptation, arrangement and any other alteration of the database, distribution to the public of the database or of copies thereof, communication, display or performance of the database to the public, extraction and/or re-utilization of the whole or of a substantial part of the contents of the database without the authorization of the author thereof, is punished by imprisonment of at least one 1 year and fine.

  • Trade marks: Under Art. 156 of Law 4072/2012, any person who (i) uses a mark identical with or confusingly similar to a registered TM, (ii) uses a famous TM in violation of Article 125 paragraph 3 (c), with the intent to exploit or harm its reputation, (iii) intentionally puts into circulation, owns, imports or exports goods or provides services under a third party (iv) intentionally commits the acts of transiting counterfeit goods through Greece or importing such goods for re-export, uses the mark on genuine goods that the right holder intended to market as no-name goods, or removes the trade mark from genuine goods and markets them as no-name goods or under a different mark, is sanctioned with imprisonment of at least 6 months and fine of minimum 6.000 EUR.

    If the benefit sought or damage threatened by the above acts is "particularly great" and there subsists exploitation on a commercial scale, or the perpetrator acts "by profession, the sanction is imprisonment of at least 2 and a fine of 6.000 to 30.000 EUR.
  • For other IP rights, the Greek Criminal Code's provisions on forgery and/or fraud may be applicable. Indeed, forgery is generally invoked for the criminal protection of copyright, brands, registered and unregistered designs and unregistered signs.
  • There are also, not particularly strict, criminal provisions for unfair competition violation.

Japan Small Flag Japan

There are criminal sanctions for infringement of each right. In principle, complaints are not necessary to invoke criminal proceedings for such infringement. However, for most types of copyright infringement, the Copyright Act specifies that no prosecution can be instituted without victim’s complaint.

Mexico Small Flag Mexico

According to our Industrial Property and Criminal Law, the sanctions are: imprisonment ranging and/or fine.

These criminal sanctions may be invoked by means of a criminal complaint filed before The Anti-Counterfeiting Federal Prosecutor.

China Small Flag China

Criminal sanctions (fines and/or imprisonment) apply to "severe" infringing activities relating to copyright, trademarks, patents and trade secrets. Severity is determined by reference to the profit obtained by the infringement, loss incurred by the rights owner, quantity of infringing products and any other factors the court deems relevant.

Depending on the data available, fines of up to approximately 5 times the amount of illegal profit or 100% of the illegal revenue are issued at the court's discretion. The maximum prison sentence is 7 years for trademarks, copyright or trade secrets, or 3 years for patents.

United Kingdom Small Flag United Kingdom

Some intellectual property rights have criminal sanctions for infringement in certain contexts. The penalties vary from a fine to a term of imprisonment of up to 10 years.

In respect of copyright, an offence is committed if a person performs an infringing act for a commercial purpose knowing, or with reasonable belief, that the act would infringe the copyright. This includes making, dealing in, or possessing the infringing article, communicating the work to the public in the course of business, or publicly performing the work.

In respect of registered trade marks, criminal liability attaches to counterfeiting activity i.e. to a person who, with a view to gain for himself or another, or with intent to cause loss to another, and without the consent of the proprietor, sells or hires, for profit, goods bearing an identical mark or one that is likely to be mistaken for a registered mark. Importantly, the trade mark owner is not required to show that the infringer acted dishonestly. Where the offence relates to the making of an article specifically designed or adapted for making copies of a sign identical to, or likely to be mistaken for, a registered trade mark, or having such an article in his possession in the course of business, the owner is required to show that the infringer had knowledge that such articles would be used for producing goods bearing the mark.

With regard to registered design rights, it is an offence if the infringer, without the consent of the owner, intentionally copies a UK or Community registered design to make a product knowing or having reason to believe that the design was registered. It is also an offence to falsely represent a design, trade mark or patent as registered.

Complaints procedures also exist, through bodies such as trading standards, which are involved in the criminal enforcement of IP.

There are no criminal sanctions for patent infringement.

South Africa Small Flag South Africa

Patents and Design Registrations
No.

Plant Breeders’ Rights
No.

Trade Marks
There are no criminal sanctions for trade mark infringement, but if the infringement constitutes counterfeiting in terms of the Counterfeit Goods Act 37 of 1997, then there are criminal sanctions for the act of dealing in counterfeit goods.

A criminal complaint is filed with the Commercial Crime Unit of the South African Police Services. In the case of a first conviction, the person could be liable to a fine in respect of each article involved in the particular act of dealing in counterfeit goods, that may not exceed ZAR5000 per article, or imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years.

Copyright
A person who infringes copyright shall be guilty of a criminal offence. A person who is convicted of an offence shall be liable, in the case of a first conviction to a fine not exceeding ZAR5000 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years.

UAE Small Flag UAE

Yes there are criminal sanctions for infringement of intellectual property rights as follows:

RIGHTS

IMPRISONMENT

FINES

CLOSURE OF BUSINESS

CONFISCATION AND DESTRUCTION OF THE INFRINGING GOODS AND TOOLS USED TO COMMIT THE INFRINGEMENT

PUBLICATION OF THE JUDGMENT

Patent (national & GCC) and Utility Certificates
Designs

not less than 3 months and not more than 2 years

not less than AED 5,000 (USD 1,360) and no more than AED 100,000 (USD 27,250)

The Law is silent

YES

YES

Trade marks

not exceeding 1 year

not less than AED 5,000 (USD 1,360) and/or no more than AED 10,000 (USD 2,725)

not less than 15 days and no more than 6 months;

YES

YES

Copyrights & Neighbouring Rights

not less than 2 months

not less than AED 10,000 (USD 2,725), and not exceeding AED 500,000 (USD 136,240)

not more than 6 months

YES

YES

New Plant Varieties and Plant Breeders Rights

not less than 2 months

not less than AED 10,000 (USD 2,725) and not more than AED 250,000 (USD 68,120)

The law is silent

YES

YES

Philippines Small Flag Philippines

If an infringement over a patented product or process is repeated by the infringer or by anyone in connivance with him, he shall be criminally liable and, upon conviction, shall suffer imprisonment for the period of not less than six (6) months but not more than three (3) years and/or a fine of not less than One Hundred Thousand Philippine Pesos (P100,000.00) or approximately Two Thousand Two Hundred Twenty Two and 22/100 United States Dollars (US$2,222.22) but not more than Three Hundred Thousand Philippine Pesos (P300,000.00) or approximately Six Thousand Six Hundred Sixty Six and 67/100 United States Dollars (US$6,666.67), at the discretion of the court.

A criminal penalty of imprisonment from two (2) years to five (5) years and a fine ranging from Fifty Thousand Philippine Pesos (P50,000.00) [approximately One Thousand One Hundred Eleven and 11/100 United States Dollars (US$1,111.11)] to Two Hundred Thousand Philippine Pesos (P200,000.00) [approximately Four Thousand Four Hundred Forty Four and 44/100 United States Dollars (US$4,444.44)], shall be imposed on any person who is found guilty of committing any trademark infringement, unfair competition or false designation or representation.

The following are the criminal penalties for copyright infringement: (a) imprisonment of one (1) year to three (3) years plus a fine ranging from Fifty Thousand Philippine Pesos (P50,000.00) [approximately One Thousand One Hundred Eleven and 11/100 United States Dollars (US$1,111.11)] to One Hundred Fifty Thousand Philippine Pesos (P150,000.00) [approximately Three Thousand Three Hundred Thirty Three and 33/100 United States Dollars (US$3,333.33)] for the first offense; (b) imprisonment of three (3) years and one (1) day to six (6) years plus a fine ranging from One Hundred Fifty Thousand Philippine Pesos (P150,000.00) [approximately Three Thousand Three Hundred Thirty Three and 33/100 United States Dollars (US$3,333.33)] to Five Hundred Thousand Philippine Pesos (P500,000.00) [approximately Eleven Thousand One Hundred Eleven and 11/100 United States Dollars (US$11,111.11)] for the second offense; (c) Imprisonment of six (6) years and one (1) day to nine (9) years plus a fine ranging from Five Hundred Thousand Philippine Pesos (P500,000.00) [approximately Eleven Thousand One Hundred Eleven and 11/100 United States Dollars (US$11,111.11)] to One Million Five Hundred Thousand Philippine Pesos (P1,500,000.00) [approximately Twenty Two Thousand Two Hundred Twenty Two and 22/100 United States Dollars (US$22,222.22)] for the third and subsequent offenses; and (d) in all cases, subsidiary imprisonment in cases of insolvency. Any person who at the time when copyright subsists in a work has in his possession an article which he knows, or ought to know, to be an infringing copy of the work for the purpose of selling, letting for hire, or by way of trade offering or exposing for sale, or hire, the article; distributing the article for purpose of trade, or for any other purpose to an extent that will prejudice the rights of the copyright owner in the work; or trade exhibit of the article in public shall be liable for the same imprisonment and fine as an infringer.

United States Small Flag United States

Patent infringement in the U.S. is not punishable by criminal penalties. However, criminal penalties are available for trademark and copyright infringement as well as the theft of trade secrets in some circumstances. With respect to trademark infringement, the Federal Anti-Counterfeiting Criminal Statute provides that any person who intentionally traffics in goods or services and knowingly uses a counterfeit mark on or in connection with the goods or services can be liable for up to ten years of imprisonment and fines of up to $2M. See 18 U.S.C. § 2320. A second offense can raise these penalties to $5M and imprisonment of up to twenty years. Copyright infringement may be punished with up to five years of imprisonment for a first offense and up to ten years for a second offense and fines of up to $250,000. See 18 U.S.C. § 2319. In addition, the Federal Economic Espionage Act (18 U.S.C. § 1832) punishes theft of trade secrets with imprisonment of up to 10 years and the greater of $5M or three times the value of the stolen trade secret to the organization. To invoke this, the facts are provided to a prosecutor’s office that determines whether criminal proceedings are appropriate.

Germany Small Flag Germany

Yes, there are.

An infringement of a patent right (Section142(1) Patent Act), of an utility model (Section 25 Utility Model Act), of a topography right (Section 10(1) Semiconductor Protection Act) or communicating a trade or industrial secret without authorisation to a third party (Section 17(1) Act against unfair competition, § 203(1), (2) Criminal Code), an infringement of the trade mark right (Section 143(1) Trademark Act), an infringement of a registered design right (Section 51(1) Design Act), an infringement of the copyright (Sections 106 et seq. Copyright Act) and an infringement of the plant variety rights (Section 39(1) Act on the Protection of Plant Varieties) can result in imprisonment for up to three years or a fine, when the infringement was committed deliberately.

Switzerland Small Flag Switzerland

The infringement of patents, designs, trademarks, topography rights and plant variety rights is subject to criminal sanctions. Any person wilfully committing such act is, upon complaint by the injured party, liable to a custodial sentence not exceeding one year or to a monetary penalty. If the offender acts for commercial gain, he shall be prosecuted ex officio and the penalty is a custodial sentence not exceeding five years or a monetary penalty.

Complaints in criminal proceedings have to be brought before the competent cantonal criminal prosecution authorities. A complaint can be filed either orally or in writing.

Ukraine Small Flag Ukraine

Illegal use of intellectual property can be considered as a crime if it causes damages no less than minimum amount prescribed by the criminal laws. For example, violation of copyright or the rights to invention shall be punishable by a fine up to equivalent of UAH 51000, or imprisonment for a term up to six years, with or without deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term up to three years; illegal use of a trademark shall be punishable by a fine up to equivalent of UAH 255000 with or without deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions or engage in certain activities for a term up to three years.

The goods made with unauthorized use of intellectual property objects, are subjects to confiscation.

A criminal prosecution can be pursued on the ground of a claim of an intellectual property owner and in certain cases at the initiative of the law-enforcement bodies.

Turkey Small Flag Turkey

There are a number of criminal provisions related to the infringement of trademark rights. If the relevant trademark is registered in Turkey, any person who infringes trademark rights of third parties shall be sentenced to imprisonment from one year to three years and administrative fine up to twenty thousand days; any person who removes an indication of trademark protection from the commodity or package without authorization to do so shall be sentenced to imprisonment from one year to three years and administrative fine up to five thousand days; and any person who makes disposal on the trademark of third parties without authorization to do so shall be sentenced from two years to four years and administrative fine up to five thousand days. If those crimes are committed in the course of the activities performed by a legal person, additional security measures shall be adopted. Inquiry and investigation of the relevant crimes shall depend on receiving any complaint in that regard. No criminal sanctions for infringements of other intellectual property rights are regulated under IPL.

Sweden Small Flag Sweden

(a) Criminal sanctions
In accordance with applicable regulations, anyone who wilfully or with gross negligence infringes a patent, a trademark, a design, a tradename, a typography for semiconductor producs, a copy right or a plant breeders’ right, or attempts to do so, shall be sentenced to fines or imprisonment for not more than two years.

(b) How to invoke
Regarding patents, trademarks, designs, tradenames and typographies for semiconductor products, actions for infringement may be brought by the public prosecutor only if the injured party files a complaint and a prosecution is called for in the public interest.
Actions due to infringements regarding copyrights and plant breeders’ rights may be brought by the public prosecutor if the injured party files a complaint or a prosecution is called for in the public interest.

(c) Protection of trade secrets
If anyone wilfully or without authorisation accesses a trade secret, or attempts to do so, he or she shall be sentenced for trade espionage to fines or imprisonment for not more than two years. If the offense is grave the punishment shall be no more than six years.

Furthermore, anyone who obtains a trade secret knowing that the person who makes available the secret, or anyone before him, has accesses it through trade espionage shall be sentenced for unauthorised tempering with trade secret to fines or imprisonment for not more than two years. Is the offence grave, the punishment shall be not more than four years.

Spain Small Flag Spain

PATENTS & PATENTS:
According to the Spanish Criminal code, whoever that wilfully makes, imports, uses, sells or disposes of the patented product or process shall be condemned with prison sentence ranging from two to four years and an economic sanction to be determined based on the nature and circumstances of the infringement.

While it is customary for the patentee to be the party that initiates criminal proceedings by the filing of a criminal complaint, the Spanish Public Security Forces may also proceed ex officio on the basis of their own investigations.

TRADEMARKS:
Criminal proceedings can be commenced against those who intentionally manufacture, import, store or sell counterfeit goods.

The legal penalties and remedies in criminal proceedings are:

  • Imprisonment of between one and four years for manufacturing, importing, offering, distributing or commercialising wholesale counterfeit goods;
  • Imprisonment of between six months and three years for offering, distributing or commercialising retail sale counterfeit goods;
  • Imprisonment of between six months and two years for street vending and occasional sale of counterfeit goods (if certain conditions are met, the imprisonment can be substituted by the payment of a fine);
  • Payment of damages;
  • Destruction of the infringing goods.

Only the owners of registered trademarks (national, international or EUTM) can seek protection under criminal law.

DESIGNS:
Criminal proceedings can be commenced against those who with industrial or commercial purposes, without the consent of the owner of a design and with knowledge of its registration, manufacture, import, possesses, uses, offers or introduces in commerce objects protected by such design right.

The legal penalties and remedies in criminal proceedings are:

  • imprisonment from six months to two years.
  • Payment of damages.
  • Destruction of the infringing goods.

Only the owners of registered designs (national, international or European) can seek protection under criminal law.

COPYRIGHTS:
Criminal proceedings can be commenced against those who, with direct or indirect benefit intend, wilfully and without the consent of the holder of the copyrights, reproduces, imitates, distributes broadcasts, transforms or performs, wholly or partially, a literary, artistic or scientific work manufacture, import, possesses, uses, offers or introduces in commerce objects protected by such design right.

The main legal penalties and remedies in criminal proceedings are:

  • Imprisonment from six months to two years.
  • Payment of damages.
  • Destruction of the infringing goods.

Israel Small Flag Israel

Designs:
A person who exploits a registered design through occupation and in a commercial manner, in one of the ways specified below and without the permission of the design holder, shall be liable to the fine prescribed in Section 61(a)(4) to the Penal Code-1977 (i.e. up to NIS 226,000, (approx. USD 62,414)):

(1) Manufacture of a product bearing the identical design as a registered design
(2) Importing a product that has a design identical to a registered design

In case the offense is conducted by a corporation, the fine will be doubled.

Copyrights:
A person who infringes copyrights shall be liable to up to 5 years imprisonment or fine in the amount of ten times the fine provided for in Section 61(a)(4) of the Penal Act.

Trademarks:
Plaintiff must prove that the defendant used the registered trademark without the rights holder’s authorization or approval, in a manner that may deceive a third party. If found guilty, defendants face imprisonment for up to three years, and a significant fine.

Brazil Small Flag Brazil

Yes, there are. The Brazilian Intellectual Property Law establishes crimes against patents (articles 183-186), for which penalty can go up to 3 years of imprisonment or application of fine; industrial designs (articles 187 and 188), for which penalty can go up to 1 year of imprisonment or application of fine; marks (articles 189 and 190), for which penalty can go up to 1 year of imprisonment or application of fine; geographical indications (articles 192 – 194), for which penalty can go up to 3 months or application of fine; and against unfair competition, which comprises, among other aspects, the protection of confidential information (article 195), for which penalty can go up to 1 year of imprisonment or application of fine.

Furthermore, the Brazilian Cultivar Law stipulates that infringing cultivar rights is also a crime.

The Brazilian Penal Code dictates that violating copyrights and neighbouring rights is punishable by imprisonment that can go up to 1 year.

Updated: November 2, 2017