Is your country a signatory to the New York Convention? Are there any reservations to the general obligations of the Convention?

International Arbitration (4th edition)

Argentina Small Flag Argentina

Yes. On 28 September 1988, the Argentine Congress passed Law No. 23,619 whereby it approved the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. This law was promulgated by the Executive Branch through Decree 1524/88 dated 21 October 1988, and the ratification instrument was deposited with the United Nations on 14 March 1989.

Upon ratifying the New York Convention, Argentina made both reservations authorized under its Art. I(3). Thus, the Convention shall only be applied, on the basis of reciprocity, to awards rendered in another member country in respect of disputes arising out of commercial transactions.

Austria Small Flag Austria

Austria has ratified the New York Convention without any reservations.

Bulgaria Small Flag Bulgaria

The New York Convention was signed by Bulgaria on December 17th, 1961 and has been in force since January 8th, 1962. Upon ratification, Bulgaria made a reservation pursuant to Art.1, para.3, sent. I of the Convention, so the New York Convention is applicable to arbitral awards issued in the territory of another contracting state. It is applied in respect of awards issued in the territory of non-contracting states on the basis of strict reciprocity – only to the extent to which those states grant reciprocal treatment of Bulgarian arbitral awards.

United States Small Flag United States

Yes. The United States became a party to the New York Convention on September 30, 1970. The U.S. made two reservations to the Convention which limit its application (1) “to the recognition and enforcement of only those awards made in the territory of another Contracting State” and (2) “to differences arising out of legal relationships, whether contractual or not, which are considered as commercial under the national law of the United States.” See New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards art. I(3), June 10, 1958, 21 U.S.T. 2517.

Canada Small Flag Canada

Canada is a signatory to the New York Convention. The Convention entered into force in Canada on August 10, 1986.

Canada has issued one reservation to the general obligations of the New York Convention. In every province and territory of Canada, except Quebec, the New York Convention only applies to differences arising out of legal relationships that are considered commercial pursuant to the laws of Canada.

Cyprus Small Flag Cyprus

(a)Yes. Cyprus became a signatory to the New York Convention on 29 December 1980.

(b)One of the reservations to the general obligations of the Convention is reciprocity whereby an award made by an international arbitration tribunal in Cyprus can be enforced in the countries which have also ratified the Convention. The second reservation permits a Contracting State to narrow the application of the Convention only to differences arising out of legal relationships, whether contractual or not, which are considered as commercial under national law.

Czech Republic Small Flag Czech Republic

Yes, the Czech Republic is a signatory to the New York Convention.

A reservation applies to the Czech Republic regarding the recognition and enforcement of awards from non-contracting states, as the Czech Republic applies the Convention only to the extent to which these states grant reciprocal treatment.

UAE Small Flag UAE

Yes, the UAE acceded to the New York Convention on 21 Aug 2006 with no reservations.

United Kingdom Small Flag United Kingdom

The New York Convention entered into force in the United Kingdom on 23 December 1975, with a reciprocity reservation. The United Kingdom has submitted notifications extending the territorial application of the New York Convention to Gibraltar, Isle of Man, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Guernsey, Jersey and the BVI.

Germany Small Flag Germany

Germany signed the New York Convention on 10 June 1958. The Convention was ratified on 30 June 1961 and entered into force on 28 September 1961.

Germany withdrew its reciprocity reservation in 1998. Hence, German courts also enforce awards made in the territory of a state that is not party to the New York Convention.

India Small Flag India

India signed the New York Convention on June 10, 1958 and ratified it on July 13, 1960. The convention entered into force on October 11, 1960.

India has made two reservations to the New York Conventions :

  • India will apply the Convention only to the recognition and enforcement of awards made in the territory of another contracting State; and
  • India will apply the Convention only to disputes arising from legal relationships, whether contractual or not, that are considered commercial under National Law.

Indonesia Small Flag Indonesia

Yes, Indonesia is a signatory to the New York Convention. Indonesia has declared that the Convention will apply on the basis of reciprocity with respect to commercial matters under Indonesian law.

Liechtenstein Small Flag Liechtenstein

Yes. Liechtenstein ratified the New York Convention on 7 July 2011. Liechtenstein has entered the reservation that it will only recognise and enforce arbitral awards on the basis of reciprocity, but irrespective of whether the merits of the disputes were of a commercial or non-commercial nature.

Malaysia Small Flag Malaysia

Malaysia is a signatory to the New York Convention. Malaysia has a declaration that ‘The Government of Malaysia will apply the Convention on the basis of reciprocity, to the recognition and enforcement of awards made only in the territory of another Contracting State. Malaysia further declares that it will apply the Convention only to differences arising out of legal relationships, whether contractual or not, which are considered as commercial under Malaysian law’.

Mexico Small Flag Mexico

Yes, Mexico is a signatory party of the New York Convention (ratified on April 14, 1971) and did not file any reservations.

Nigeria Small Flag Nigeria

Nigeria is a signatory to the New York Convention having acceded to it on March 17, 1970. The New York Convention came into force in Nigeria on June 15, 1970. The New York Convention now forms part of the primary legislation having been made expressly applicable to Nigeria by section 54 of the ACA and is set out in the Schedule Two to the ACA.

There are reservations in Nigeria to the New York Convention. Section 54 of the ACA emphasizes the provisions of Articles 1X and XI of the New York Convention. In accordance with Article I(3) of the New York Convention, the New York Convention is applied in Nigeria on the basis that there is a reciprocal recognition and enforcement of awards made in Nigeria in the territory of a member state whose award is to be enforced in Nigeria.

Norway Small Flag Norway

Norway ratified the New York Convention on March 14 1961 and it entered into force June 11 1961.

Norwegian law does not limit the scope of the convention. However, Norway has made reservations to the convention so that it applies only to the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards made in the territory of one of the contracting states. Further, under these reservations, the convention does not apply to proceedings when the subject matter is immovable property situated in Norway or a right in or to such property.

Philippines Small Flag Philippines

Yes, the Philippines is a signatory to the New York Convention, with the reservation that the signature was made on the basis of reciprocity.

Saudi Arabia Small Flag Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is a signatory to the New York Convention. Its accession to this treaty was predicated on the principle of reciprocity, that is, that it would enforce the arbitral awards of other signatories to the treaty only if they enforced Saudi awards. The Kingdom’s accession to the New York Convention is also predicated on the principle that enforcement of arbitral awards would not violate Islamic law (Sharia) or public policy.

Singapore Small Flag Singapore

In 1986, Singapore acceded to the New York Convention, which remains in force in Singapore today. Singapore has expressed the sole reservation that it will apply the New York Convention to the recognition and enforcement of only those awards made in the territory of another contracting State.

South Korea Small Flag South Korea

Korea is a signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (the “New York Convention”). The New York Convention entered into force in Korea on 9 May 1973.

Korea has made reciprocity and commercial reservations to the New York Convention. Korea does not recognize (i) arbitral awards made in a country that is not a party to the New York Convention, and (ii) disputes which are not considered “commercial” under Korean law.

France Small Flag France

Yes, France is a signatory to the New York Convention. It entered into force in France on 24 September 1959. In practice, the New York Convention is rarely applied, as French arbitration rules on recognition and enforcement are generally more favourable than the New York Convention (Article VII (1) of the New York Convention).

France made a reciprocity reservation in the New York Convention, but it does not concern the provisions applicable to the recognition and enforcement of foreign awards. These provisions are applicable to all awards rendered in foreign countries, regardless of whether they are signatories of the New York Convention or not.

Egypt Small Flag Egypt

Egypt is a signatory of the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958). Egypt has consented to join the New York Convention on 2 February 1959, ratified same on 9 March 1959, and it entered into force as part of the Egyptian legal system on 7 June 1959 without any reservations or declarations.

Ecuador Small Flag Ecuador

Yes, Ecuador is a party to the New York Convention (“NYC”) which is in force in Ecuador since 1962.

The reservations Ecuador made to the NYC are the following: a) application only to the recognition and enforcement of awards issued by countries subscribed to the NYC; and, b) application to awards derived from legal relations, contractual or not, considered as commercial, according to the local legislation.

Chile Small Flag Chile

Chile is a contracting state to the NY Convention since 1975, with no reservations.

Switzerland Small Flag Switzerland

Switzerland ratified the New York Convention in 1965 without making any reservations to the general obligations of the convention. With the PILA having entered into force on 1 January 1989 the reciprocity reservation of Switzerland was withdrawn and the New York Convention applies erga omnes.

Taiwan Small Flag Taiwan

No. Taiwan is not a signatory to the New York Convention.

Greece Small Flag Greece

Greece is a signatory to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. Greece has acceded to the New York Convention by virtue of Legislative Decree (LD) 4220/1961 (entry into force on October 14, 1962). Under article 28 of the Greek Constitution the provisions of the New York Convention prevail over all conflicting provisions of Greek law. Greece has made both the reciprocity as well as the commercial reservation under article I (3) of the New York Convention. Regarding the former reservation however, it is noted that under article 36 L. 2735/1999, the provisions of said Legislative Decree transposing into Greek law the New York Convention, are generally applicable to all foreign arbitral awards. Hence, they are applicable also to awards made in a country which has not ratified the New York Convention.

Greece Small Flag Greece

Greece is a signatory to the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. Greece has acceded to the New York Convention by virtue of Legislative Decree (LD) 4220/1961 (entry into force on October 14, 1962). Under article 28 of the Greek Constitution the provisions of the New York Convention prevail over all conflicting provisions of Greek law. Greece has made both the reciprocity as well as the commercial reservation under article I (3) of the New York Convention. Regarding the former reservation however, it is noted that under article 36 L. 2735/1999, the provisions of said Legislative Decree transposing into Greek law the New York Convention, are generally applicable to all foreign arbitral awards. Hence, they are applicable also to awards made in a country which has not ratified the New York Convention.

Turkey Small Flag Turkey

Turkey is a signatory to the New York Convention since 1991. Reciprocity and commercial nature of the dispute are two reservations Turkey has with regard to the Convention.

Updated: November 6, 2019