To which international anti-corruption conventions is your country party?

Bribery & Corruption (2nd edition)

China Small Flag China

The Chinese government signed the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (“Convention”) in December 2000, which came into force in China on October 13, 2003. Although this Convention is a generally applicable to all transnational organization crimes, corruption is one of its the primary focuses, which requires the contracting states to take measures through legislation and law enforcement to promote anti-corruption.

Later, China was actively involved in the formation stage of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (“Anti-Corruption Convention”), and was among the first countries to ratify it, with one reservation on the paragraph 2 of Article 66 regarding dispute settlement channel, and it officially took effect in China on February 12, 2006. The Anti-Corruption Convention is the only legally binding universal anti-corruption instrument with the framework established on 5 pillars which are Preventive Measures, Criminalization and Law Enforcement, International Cooperation, Asset Recovery, and Technical Assistance & Information Exchange. At the end of 2016, 10 years after China’s ratification of the Anti-Corruption Convention, a status review report on China’s implementation of the Anti-Corruption Convention was published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, in which China’s efforts and dedication in anti-corruption through active law enforcement, successive international cooperation and sustainable good practices have been well recognized.

France Small Flag France

At the international level, France is party to two conventions:

  • The OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Officials in International Business Transactions (17 December 1997), ratified by France on 31 July 2000;
  • The United Nations Convention Against Corruption (31 October 2003), ratified by France on 11 July 2005.

At the European level, France is party to several instruments:

  • The European Union (EU) Convention on the Fight Against Corruption Involving Officials of the European Communities or Officials of the EU Member States, adopted by the Act of the Council of the EU on 26 May 1997;
  • The Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (27 January 1999), ratified by France on 25 April 2008;
  • The Civil Law Convention on Corruption (4 November 1999), ratified by France on 25 April 2008.

Germany Small Flag Germany

Various anti-corruption conventions apply in Germany, such as:

  • UN Convention against Corruption;
  • UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime;
  • EU Convention on the Fight against Corruption involving Officials of the European Communities/Member States of the EU;
  • EU Council Framework decision 2003/568/JHA;
  • Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Convention on the Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions;
  • Resolution (99) 5 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe; and
  • Resolution (97) 24 of the Council of Europe.

Greece Small Flag Greece

Greece has ratified all major international anti-corruption conventions and has passed legal provisions to conform with them:

The UN Convention Against Corruption (Law 3666/2008); the Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption and Additional Protocol (Law 3560/2007); the Council of Europe Civil Law Convention on Corruption (Law 2957/2001); the EU Convention on the Protection of the European Communities’ Financial Interests (Law 2803/2000); the EU Convention Against Corruption Involving Officials of the European Communities or Officials of Member States of the European Union (Official Journal C195 of June 25 1997) (Law 2802/2000); and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (Law 2656/1998).

In addition to the above, Greece complies with the EU policies against corruption in specific industries (e.g. public works) stipulated by EU Regulations or EU Directives.

Ireland Small Flag Ireland

Ireland is a party to the following international anti-corruption conventions:

  • the EU Convention on the Protection of the European Communities Financial Interests (and Protocols);
  • the OECD Convention on Combatting Bribery of Foreign Officials in International Business Transactions;
  • the Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption;
  • the Convention on the Fight against Corruption Involving Officials of the European Communities or Officials of Member States of the European Union;
  • the Additional Protocol to the Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption;
  • the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime; and
  • the UN Convention against Corruption.

Italy Small Flag Italy

Italy is party to the following anti-corruption conventions:

  • the 1997 OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions;
  • the 1999 Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (Treaty 173 of the Council of Europe);
  • the 1999 Civil Law Convention on Corruption (Treaty 174 of the Council of Europe);
  • the 2003 UN Convention Against Corruption.

Belgium Small Flag Belgium

Belgium signed the following Conventions that entered into force:

  • Convention against Corruption (UN, 31 October 2003);
  • Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (OECD, 17 December 1997);
  • Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (Council of Europe, 27 January 1999);
  • Civil Law Convention on Corruption (Council of Europe, 4 November 1999);
  • Convention on the fight against corruption involving officials of the European Communities or officials of Member States of the European Union (Council of the European Union, 26 May 1997).

Japan Small Flag Japan

Japan ratified the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (OECD Convention) in 1997. In connection with acceding to the OECD Convention, the UCPA was amended to criminalise bribery of foreign public officials in 1998. In addition, Japan is a signatory to the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) that includes provisions requiring legal measures against the acceptance of bribes by domestic public officials, and against bribery of domestic or foreign public officials. The UNCAC was ratified in 2006.

Kenya Small Flag Kenya

Kenya is a state party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption ratified on 9th December 2003; the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption, 2003 which it ratified on 3rd February 2007 and African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance, 2007 ratified on 28th June 2008.

United States Small Flag United States

The United States is a party to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Anti-Bribery Convention, the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption. The United States is also a member of the OECD Working Group on Bribery and Anti-Bribery Convention.

Mexico Small Flag Mexico

Mexico is a party to the following international anti-corruption conventions:

(i) the OAS Inter-American Convention Against Corruption;

(ii) the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, officially the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions; and

(iii) the United Nations Convention against Corruption.

Brazil Small Flag Brazil

Please refer to Question 1.

New Zealand Small Flag New Zealand

New Zealand is party to the following international conventions:

  • OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Officials in International Business Transactions (signed 1997: ratified 2001).
  • United Nations Convention Against Corruption (signed 2003: ratified 2015).
  • United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (signed 2000: ratified 2002).

Denmark Small Flag Denmark

Denmark has ratified several anti-corruption conventions, notably the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, the Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, and the United Nations Convention against Corruption. Denmark is also a member of the Group of States against Corruption (GRECO), which monitors the members’ compliance with the organisation’s anti-corruption standards.

Additionally, Denmark is a EU Member State and has implemented relevant EU legislation on corruption, such as the Directive on Procurement implementing restrictions on participation in public procurement tenders and the Convention on the Protection of the European Communities’ Financial Interests with later protocols.

It is worthy of mention that Denmark has not yet ratified the Council of Europe’s Civil Law Convention on Corruption.

Romania Small Flag Romania

Romania has adhered to a number of relevant international instruments in the field of preventing and combating corruption, as follows: (i) The Criminal Convention on Corruption, adopted in Strasbourg on 27 January 1999, ratified through Law no. 27/2002; (ii) The Civil Convention on Corruption, adopted in Strasbourg on 4 November 1999, ratified through Law no.147 / 2002; and (iii) the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, adopted in New York on October 31, 2003, ratified through Law no. 365/2004.

Singapore Small Flag Singapore

Singapore is a party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption which was ratified on 6 November 2009. Singapore is also a party to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime which was ratified on 28 August 2007.

Further, Singapore is a member of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG). CPIB also represents Singapore at various anti-corruption fora such as:

  • Asian Development Bank (ABD) - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Anti-Corruption Initiative for Asia and Pacific
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Anti-Corruption and Transparency Experts' Working Group (ACTWG)
  • Economic Crime Agencies Network (ECAN)
  • G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group (ACWG)
  • International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities (IAACA)
  • South East Asia – Parties Against Corruption (SEA-PAC)

Switzerland Small Flag Switzerland

Switzerland is a signatory to the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (1997), which it had co-developed and fully implemented since it came into force.

Switzerland has also ratified the UN Convention against Corruption (2003) and the Council of Europe’s Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (1999), but not its Civil Law Convention on Corruption (1999). Further, Switzerland has further ratified the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (2000) that also contains undertakings to prohibit and sanction corruption of public officials.

United Kingdom Small Flag United Kingdom

  • The United Nations Convention Against Corruption
  • The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime
  • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions
  • The Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (with Additional Protocol)
  • The Council of Europe Civil Law Convention on Corruption
  • The Convention on the Fight Against Corruption Involving Officials of the European Communities or Officials of Member States of the European Union
  • The Convention on the Protection of the European Communities Financial Interests and Protocols
  • The Agreement for the Establishment of the International Anti-Corruption Academy (yet to be ratified)

Canada Small Flag Canada

Canada has signed and ratified a number of conventions aimed at addressing bribery and corruption worldwide. On December 17, 1997, Canada signed the OECD Convention and Parliament passed the CFPOA to implement Canada’s obligations under the OECD Convention into Canadian law.

Canada is also signed on to the Convention on Avoiding Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions; the UN Convention against Corruption; the Inter- American Convention against Corruption; and the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime.

Portugal Small Flag Portugal

Portugal joined the following conventions:

a) OECD Convention on combatting bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions - Adopted by the Negotiating Conference on 21 November 1997;

b) European Union Convention on the fight against corruption involving officials of the European Communities or officials of Member States of the European Union - Official Journal C 195, 25/06/1997 P. 0002 - 0011;

c) Council of Europe Criminal Convention on Corruption - ETS No.173;

d) United Nations Convention against Corruption - General Assembly resolution 58/4 of 31 October 2003 United Nations Convention against Corruption.

Argentina Small Flag Argentina

Argentina is a party to the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, the United Nations Convention against Corruption, and the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions.

Angola Small Flag Angola

United Nations Convention; African Union Convention, SADC Protocol and others.

Updated: July 8, 2019